Friday, March 18, 2011

Lecture Slides On Toxic Gases and An Introduction To CBRNE Weapons

Toxic gases
CBRNE - An Introduction

Overview of CBRNE
Chemical agents
  • Blood agents
  • Nerve agents
  • Blistering agents

1. Blood agents
Cyanide groups

2. Nerve agents
  • G series and V series
  • G series - made in Germany (that's why it is called G)
  • GA Tabun, GB (Sarin - used in Aum Shinrikyo 1995 attack), GD (Soman)
  • V series e.g. VX
3. Blistering agents - Lewisite - causing skin eruptions

2. Biological Weapons
Two main types
  1. Biological Agents
  2. Biological Toxins

Biological Agents divided into two main types
  1. Viruses - e.g. Virus hemorrhagic fever like Ebola
  2. Bacteria - e.g. anthrax, Yersinia pestis (plague)

Biological toxins. Examples include:
  • Botulinism - inhibit acethylcholinesterase breakdown
  • Ricin - from castor oil - inhibit protein synthesis causing organ damage
  • SEB - Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B - stimulates immune system and cytokines

3. Radiation
  1. α radiation
  2. β radiation
  3. γ radiation
Alpha radiations
  • Slow moving, heavy
  • Highly ionizing but
  • very poor penetration - can be stopped by a piece of paper
  • because highly ionizing, can cause a lot of damage if ingested
Beta radiations
  • better penetration up to 8 mm to skin
Gamma radiations
  • highly penetrating
4. Nuclear weapons
  • A Bomb (Atomic Bomb) - through nuclear fission
  • H Bomb (Hydrogen Bomb) - through nuclear fusion; more powerful than A Bomb
  • Only six countries in the world have H Bomb: US, UK, China, India, Russia and France
5. Explosives
  1. Large scale - Incendiary bombs, Napalm-B, Mark 77
  2. Smaller scale - Molotov Cocktail (Poor man’s hand grenades)

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